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Darwin's Emotions - Contents

Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

THE EXPRESSION OF THE

EMOTIONS IN MAN AND ANIMALS



BY

CHARLES DARWIN

M.A., F.R.S., ETC.



_WITH PHOTOGRAPHIC AND OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS_



NEW YORK

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY

1899







Authorized Edition.



CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTION......................................................Pages 
1-26



CHAP.  I--GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXPRESSION.  The three chief

principles stated--The first principle--Serviceable actions

become habitual in association with certain states of the mind,

and are performed whether or not of service in each particular case--

The force of habit--Inheritance--Associated habitual movements

in man--Reflex actions--Passage of habits into reflex actions--

Associated habitual movements in the lower animals--

Concluding remarks ............27-49



CHAP.  II--GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXPRESSION--_continued_. The Principle

of Antithesis--Instances in the dog and cat--Origin of the principle--

Conventional signs--The principle of antithesis has not arisen from 
opposite

actions being consciously performed under opposite impulses ..........50-65



CHAP.  III--GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXPRESSION--_concluded_.



The principle of the direct action of the excited nervous system on the 
body,

independently of the will and in part of habit--Change of colour in the 
hair--

Trembling of the muscles--Modified secretions--Perspiration--Expression of

extreme pain--Of rage, great joy, and terror--Contrast between the emotions

which cause and do not cause expressive movements--Exciting and depressing

states of the mind--Summary............................................ 
66-82



CHAP.  IV--MEANS OF EXPRESSION.  IN ANIMALS.  The emission of sounds--

Vocal sounds--Sounds otherwise produced--Erection of the dermal appendages,

hairs, feathers, &c., under the emotions of anger and terror--The drawing 
back

of the ears as a preparation for fighting, and as an expression of anger--

Erection of the ears and raising the head, a sign of attention 88-114



CHAP.  V.--SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS OF ANIMALS.  The Dog, various expressive

movements of--Cats--Horses--Ruminants--Monkeys, their expression of joy

and affection--Of pain--Anger Astonishment and Terror Pages 115-145



CHAP.  VI.--SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS OF MAN:  SUFFERING AND WEEPING.  The 
screaming

and weeping of infants--Form of features--Age at which weeping commences--

The effects of habitual restraint on weeping--Sobbing--Cause of

the contraction of the muscles round the eyes during screaming--

Cause of the secretion of tears 146-175



CHAP.  VII.--LOW SPIRITS, ANXIETY, GRIEF, DEJECTION, DESPAIR.  General 
effect

of grief on the system--Obliquity of the eyebrows under suffering--

On the cause of the obliquity of the eyebrows--On the depression

of the corners of the mouth 176-195



CHAP.  VIII.--JOY, HIGH SPIRITS, LOVE, TENDER FEELINGS, DEVOTION.

Laughter primarily the expression of joy--Ludicrous ideas--

Movements of the features during laughter--Nature of the sound produced--

The secretion of tears during loud laughter--Gradation from loud

laughter to gentle smiling--High spirits--The expression of love--

Tender feelings--Devotion 196-219



CHAP.  IX.--REFLECTION--MEDITATION--ILL--TEMPER--SULKINESS DETERMINATION.

The act of frowning--Reflection with an effort or with the perception

of something difficult or disagreeable--Abstracted meditation--

Ill-temper--Moroseness--Obstinacy--Sulkiness and pouting--

Decision or determination--The firm closure of the mouth 220-236



CHAP.  X.-HATRED AND ANGER.



Hatred--Rage, effects of on the system--Uncovering of the teeth--

Rage in the insane--Anger and indignation--As expressed by the various

races of man--Sneering and defiance--The uncovering of the canine

teeth on one side of the face 237-252



CHAP.  XI.--DISDAIN--CONTEMPT--DISGUST--GUILT--PRIDE, ETC.--HELPLESSNESS--

PATIENCE--AFFIRMATION AND NEGATION.  Contempt, scorn and disdain,

variously expressed--Derisive Smile--Gestures expressive of contempt--

Disgust--Guilt, deceit, pride, etc.--Helplessness or impotence--

Patience--Obstinacy--Shrugging the shoulders common to most of the races

of man--Signs of affirmation and negation 253-277



CHAP.  XII.--SURPRISE--ASTONISHMENT--FEAR--HORROR.



Surprise, astonishment--Elevation of the eyebrows--Opening the mouth--

Protrusion of the lips--Gestures accompanying surprise--

Admiration Fear--Terror--Erection of the hair--Contraction of the

platysma muscle--Dilatation of the pupils--horror--Conclusion.  Pages 
278-308



CHAP.  XIII.--SELF-ATTENTION--SHAME--SHYNESS--MODESTY:  BLUSHING.



Nature of a blush--Inheritance--The parts of the body most affected--

Blushing in the various races of man--Accompanying gestures--

Confusion of mind--Causes of blushing--Self-attention, the

fundamental element--Shyness--Shame, from broken moral laws and

conventional rules--Modesty--Theory of blushing--Recapitulation 309-346



CHAP.  XIV.--CONCLUDING REMARKS AND SUMMARY.



The three leading principles which have determined the chief movements

of expression--Their inheritance--On the part which the will and

intention have played in the acquirement of various expressions--

The instinctive recognition of expression--The bearing of our

subject on the specific unity of the races of man--On the successive

acquirement of various expressions by the progenitors of man--

The importance of expression--Conclusion 347-366



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



FIG.  PAGE

     1. Diagram of the muscles of the face, from Sir C. Bell     24

     2.   "   "   "   Henle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

     3.   "   "   "   " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

     4 Small dog watching a cat on a table   43

     5 Dog approaching another dog with hostile intentions  52

     6. Dog in a humble and affectionate frame of mind      53

     7. Half-bred Shepherd Dog     54

     8. Dog caressing his master   55

     9. Cat, savage, and prepared to fight   58

     10. Cat in an affectionate frame of mind     59

     11. Sound-producing quills from the tail of the Porcupine   93

     12. Hen driving away a dog from her chickens......98

     13. Swan driving away an intruder.................99

     14. Head of snarling dog.........................117

     15. Cat terrified at a dog.......................125

     16. Cynopithecus niger, in a placid condition....135

     17. The same, when pleased by being caressed.....135

     18. Chimpanzee disappointed and sulky............139

     19. Photograph of an insane woman................296

     20. Terror.......................................299

     21. Horror and Agony.............................306



 Plate I. to face page 147    Plate V. to face page 254.

 "  II.  "   178.      "   VI.  "   264.

 "  III. "   200.      "   VII. "   300.

 "  IV.  "   248.



_N.  B_.--Several of the figures in these seven Heliotype Plates have been

reproduced from photographs, instead of from the original negatives;

and they are in consequence somewhat indistinct.  Nevertheless they are

faithful copies, and are much superior for my purpose to any drawing,

however carefully executed.

[Note: Illustrations are not available in this etext version.]

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